*..Drinking cranberry juice can be effective in preventing Urinary tract infections.* Think it’s a heart attack? Call an ambulance, then chew one full strength (325mg) ASPIRIN tablet or else chew 4 low dose (81mg) ASPIRIN tablets. *..Supplementing blood pressure medicines with folate containing food materials or tablets has shown to reduce the likelihood of developing stroke in future. *.. A minimum of 150 minutes of moderate exercise per week or 20 -30 min every other day has shown to improve blood pressure in hypertensive patients. *.. Mindfulness: A popular meditation technique has shown to reduce levels of stress hormone levels known as Cortisol and help in increasing attention span. *.. Worsening of Anxiety, agitation, restlessness in a previously healthy individual may be due to an overactive thyroid gland. Consult your doctor about thyroid function test.




  • Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high sugar/glucose in blood.
  • Glucose enters the blood from the food we eat which is later used for fuel in the   body.liver
  • Pancreas which is an important gland is located near the stomach and it makes Insulin which plays a role in moving glucose inside our muscles, Liver and Fat cells.
  • In Diabetes Pancreas either fail to make enough insulin or our Liver, muscles, fat cells fail to respond to insulin properly.
  • As a result various body tissues do not get enough glucose inspite of high blood sugars therefore our body cells starve for energy.
  • Over a period of time this can cause damage to various organs of the body like Heart, Kidney, Eyes and nerves.


There are 4 major types of Diabetes:


 Type 1 Diabetes:-

  • Usually diagnosed in childhood.diabetes type1
  • Autoimmune disease –Body’s own Antibodies destroys Pancreas.
  • Also called as Insulin Dependent Diabetes.
  • Pancreas fail to make adequate levels of Insulin.
  • Therefore patients with type 1 diabetes require Insulin daily to survive.



Type 2 Diabetes:-

  • Most common type.diabetes type2
  • Usually diagnosed in adults but now days increasingly seen in younger generation.
  • Rates are rising due to increased obesity and failure to exercise and eat healthy.
  • Pancreas are able to make Insulin but obesity cause insulin receptors to decrease and dysfunctional.



Gestational Diabetes:-

  • Blood sugars are high during pregnancy in women.diabetes type3
  • Placental hormones are responsible for causing insulin resistance leading to diabetes.
  • High risk of progression to type 2 diabetes and Heart diseases.


Pre Diabetes:-

  • Above average blood glucose levels but not high enough to be classified as type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
  • Starts with unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise.
  • At least 80 million people are diagnosed with diabetes each year.



  • Excessive thirst
  • Excessive urinationdiabetes symptoms
  • Excessive hunger
  • Fatigue
  • Poor wound healing
  • Blurry vision
  • Recurrent infections
  • Numbness and tingling sensation in hands and feet.



  • Poor diet and obesity.risk factor
  • Lack of exercise.
  • Family history of diabetes.
  • High blood pressure.


Fasting plasma glucose test:-


  • Patient must fast for 8 hours.
  • Doctor will then draw blood.
  • For Pre Diabetics blood glucose will be in 100-125mg/dl range.
  • For Diabetics blood glucose will be above 126mg/dl.


Random glucose test:-


  • More than 200mg/dl.
  • According to latest guidelines oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is not used routinely.


  • Urine test for proteins may show elevated urine Albumin levels.
  • Urine test for ketones may show elevated levels especially in type 1 diabetics.
  • HbA1c of more than 6.5% may be seen in diabetic patients.




diabetes diet


  • Exercise increases uptake of glucose by muscles therefore improving blood sugars.exercise
  • 150 minutes of exercise per week has shown to decrease bad cholesterol (LDL) and increase good cholesterol (HDL).



CAUTION- Check blood sugars before, during and after exercise if exercise is prolonged.


  • Patients on insulin should check blood sugars 2 -4 times a day by help of glucometer.Glucose
  • Patients not on insulin should check blood sugars 2-3 times per week.
  • Parameters from physician are very important.
  • Continuous Glucose monitoring
  • Subcutaneous sensor in the abdomen.Download data quarterly every 72 hours.
  • Helps in evaluating the trends and efficacy of treatment over 24hours.


No smoking


  • Rapid acting insulin-Lispro and Aspart
  • Short acting insulin-Regular
  • Intermediate acting insulin
  • Long acting insulin

CAUTION-Always CONSULT your physician before taking any form of insulin.

Methods of insulin delivery:-

  • Insulin pensinjection
  • Jet Injectors
  • Insulin pumps


  • Implanatable devices
  • Latest-islet cell transplantation.

CAUTION-Always CONSULT your physician before using any form of insulin injecting device.


  • MetforminDRUGS
  • Glipizide/glyburide
  • Acarbose
  • Sitagliptin


  • Pramlintide
  • Pioglitazone
  • Exanatide


CAUTION-Always CONSULT your physician before starting oral drugs.



  • Cardiovascular diseases such as Myocardial infarction (HEART ATTACK) is the MOST COMMON cause of DEATH in DIABETICS.



CALL the AMBULANCE IMMEDIATELY if the patient develops any of the following symptoms.



  • Inspect feet daily.
  • Wear closed toe shoes.
  • Visit Podiatrist at least annually.
  • Maintain good foot hygiene.
  • Maintaining proper blood sugar is the key to preventing complications.


  • CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE can be seen due to involvement of small blood vessels of kidney.



  • Controlling blood pressure halts the progression of kidney disease .


















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