What is Asthma?
- Asthma is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airway ( tubes that bring air into and out of an individual’s lungs.)
- It is the most common chronic disease in children.
- Tightness in the chest
- While the exact cause of asthma is not known, it is thought that a variety of factors interacting with one another, early in life, result in the development of asthma.
- Parents with asthma
- Childhood respiratory infections
- Exposure to allergens or infections while the immune system is developing.
- Troublesome cough, particularly at night
- Awakened by coughing
- Coughing or wheezing after physical activity
- Breathing problems during particular seasons
- Coughing, wheezing, or chest tightness after allergen exposure
- Colds that last more than 10 days
- Relief when medication is used
- Atopic dermatitis or other allergic skin conditions.
- Hyperexpansion of thorax.
- Wheezing sound heard on auscultation.
- Decreased breath sounds heard on auscultation
- Spirometry-Tests the lung function when diagnosing asthma.
Medications for Asthma
- Two major categories of medicines used in the management are:
- There is no cure for asthma. Asthma can only be managed by the help of medicines and avoidance of trigger factors.
- Long term control
- Quick relief a.k.a rescuers
Long term control
- Taken daily over a long period of time
- Used to reduce inflammation, relax airway muscles, and improve symptoms and lung function
- Inhaled corticosteroids (fluticasone,budesonide)
- Long-acting beta2-agonists (salmetrol, formetrol)
- Leukotriene modifiers
- Used in acute episodes
- Generally short-acting beta2agonists ( salbutamol inhalers)
How to use an inhaler:
How to use spacer with inhaler:
- Spacer can also be used by the patients if they have difficulty in using inhalers.
- Spacers have also shown to decrease the potential for side effects caused by the medication.
How to use nebulizer:
- Nebulizers are machines which produces mist of medication.
- Used more commonly for small children.